75 years of Experimental Discovery of the Type II Superconductivity (Shubnikov phase)

1Shepelev, AG
1National Science Center "Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology", Kharkov
Nauka innov. 2011, 7(5):5-15
https://doi.org/10.15407/scin7.05.005
Section: Scientific Basis of Innovation Activity
Language: Russian
Abstract: 
The paper covers main facts of the way covered by the scientists of world cryogenic laboratories to the discovery of the type II superconductivity at the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute for Physics and Technology (prior UFTI) in 1936. Basic results and appraisals of the discovery by the foremost authorities in the field of superconductivity are presented; the role of the phenomenon in present-day science and technology is briefly discussed.
Keywords: magnetic systems, Shubnikov phase, type II superconductivity
References: 
1. Berlincourt T.G. Type II superconductivity: quest for understanding. IEEE Trans. Magnetics. 1987. V.MAG-26, N 2. P. 403-412.
https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.1987.1065156
2. Schubnikow L.W., Chotkewitsch W.I., Schepelew J.D., Rjabinin J.N. Magnetische Eigenschaften supraleitender Metalle und Legierungen. Sondernummer Phys. Z. Sowjet. Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete tiefer Temperaturen, Juni 1936. 1936. — S. 39-66.
3. Schubnikow L.W., Chotkewitsch W.I., Schepelew J.D., Rjabinin J.N. Magnetische Eigenschaften supraleitender Metalle und Legierungen. Phys .Z. Sowjet. 1936. Bd. 10, H.2. S.165-192.
4. Shubnikov L.V., Hotkevich V.I., Shepelev Ju.D., Rjabinin Ju.N. Magnitnye svojstva sverhprovodjashhih metallov i splavov. ZhJeTF. 1937. 7(2): 221-237 [in Russian].
5. Shubnikov L.V., Khotkevich V.I., Shepelev Yu.D., Riabinin Yu.N. Magnetic properties of superconducting metals and alloys. Ukrainian J. Phys. 2008. V. 53, Special Issue. P. 42-52.
6. Bardeen J. Theory of superconductivity. In: Superconductivity in Science and Technology (ed. M.H.Cohen), Chi cago & London: University of Chicago Press. 1968. P. 4.
7. Shepelev G.D. Magnitnye svojstva sverhprovodjashhih splavov, Diss. kand. fiz.-mat. nauk, Inv. N 379-D, HGU, 1938 [in Russian].
8. Lorentz H.A. On the motion of electricity in a spherical shell placed in a magnetic field. Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden. 1924. Suppl. N 50b. P. 35-40.
9. Kamerlingh Onnes H. The appearance of the resistance in superconductors, which are brought into a magnetic field, at a threshold value of the field. Ibid. 1914. No 139f. P. 65-71.
10. Tuyn W., Kamerlingh Onnes H. The disturbance of supraconductivity by magnetic field and currents. The hypothesis of Silsbee. Ibid. 1926. 16(174a): 3-39.
11. Sizoo G.J., De Haas W.J., Kamerlingh Onnes H. Measurements on the magnetic disturbance of the superconductivity with tin. 1. Influence of elastic deformation. 2. Hysteresis phenomena. Ibid. 1926. 16(180c): 29-53.
12. De Haas W.J., Sizoo G.J., Kamerlingh Onnes H. Measurements on the magnetic disturbance of the superconductivity with mercury. Ibid. 1926. 16(180d): 57-103.
13. De Haas W.J., Voogd J. The magnetic disturbance of the superconductivity of single-crystal wires of tin. Ibid. 1931. 19(212c): 29-36.
14. Landau L.D. K teorii sverhprovodimosti. ZhJeTF. 1937. 7(3): 371-378 [in Russian].
15. Landau L.D. K teorii promezhutochnogo sostojanija sverhprovodnikov. Ibid. 1943. 13(11-12): 377-387 [in Russian].
16. Laue M.V. Zur Deutung einiger Versuche über Supraleitung. Phys.Z. 1932. Bd. 33, No. 21. S. 793-796.
17. Meissner W., Ochsenfeld R. Ein neuer Effekt bei Eintritt der supraleitfähigkeit. Naturwiss. 1933. Bd. 33, No. 44. S. 787-788.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01504252
18. Rjabinin J.N., Schubnikow L.W. Verhalten eines Supraleiters im magnetischen Field. Phys.Z.Sowjet. 1934. Bd.5, H.4. S. 641-643.
19. De Haas W.J., Voogd J. Disturbance of the super conductivity of the compound Bi5 Tl3 and of the alloys Sn-Bi and Sn-Cd by magnetic field. Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden. 1929. No 199c. P. 31-40.
20. De Haas W.J., Voogd J. The influence of magnetic fields on superconductors. Ibid. 1930. No 208b. P. 9-20.
21. De Haas W.J., Voogd J. Further investigations on the magnetic disturbance of the superconducting state of alloys. Ibid. 1931. No 214b. P. 9-16.
22. Tarr F.G.A., Wilhelm J.O. Magnetic effects in superconductors. Canad. J. Research. 1935. 12(1): 265-271.
https://doi.org/10.1139/cjr35-022
23. Keeley T.C., Mendelssohn K., Moore J.R. Experiments on supraconductors. Nature. 1934. 134(3394): 773-774.
https://doi.org/10.1038/134773c0
24. De Haas W.J., Casimir-Jonker J.M. Penetration of magnetic field into superconductive alloys. Proc. Roy. Acad. Amsterdam, Proc. Sec. Sci. 1935. 38(1): 2-7.
25. De Haas W.J., Casimir-Jonker J.M. Penetration of magnetic field into superconductive alloys. Nature. 1935. 135(3401): 30-31.
https://doi.org/10.1038/135030b0
26. De Haas W.J., Casimir-Jonker J.M. Penetration of magnetic field into superconductive alloys. Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden. 1935. 21(233c): 1-7.
27. Rjabinin J.N., Schubnikow L.W. Magnetic properties and critical currents of superconducting alloys. Phys. Z. Sowjet. 1935. 7(1): 122-125.
28. Rjabinin J.N., Schubnikow L.W. Magnetic properties and critical currents of superconducting alloys. Nature. 1935. 135(3415): 581-582.
https://doi.org/10.1038/135581a0
29. Mendelssohn K., Moore J.R. Surpa-conducting alloys. Nature. 1935. 135(3420): 826-827.
https://doi.org/10.1038/135826b0
30. Mendelssohn K. In Discussion on superconductivity and other low temperature phenomena. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1935. 152A(875): 34-41.
31. Ginzburg V.L. Sverhprovodimost'. Moskva: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1946 [in Russian].
32. Gorter C.J. Note on the supraconductivity of alloys. Physica. 1935. 2(1-12): 449-452.
33. London H. Phase-equilibrium of supraconductors in a mag netic field. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1935. 152A(875): 650-663.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1935.0212
34. Goodman B.B. Type II or London superconductors. Revs. Mod. Phys. 1964. V. 36, No. 1, Pt. 1. P. 12-19.
35. Berlincourt T.G. Type II superconductivity. Ibid. P. 20.
36. Morin F.J., Maita J.P., Williams H.J. et al. Heat capacity evidence for a large degree of superconductivity in V3 Gain high magnetic fields. Phys.Rev.Letters. 1962. 8(7): 275-277.
https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.8.275
37. Ehrenfest P. Phasenumwandlungen im üblichen und erweiterten Zinn, classifiziert nach den entsprechenden Singularitäten des thermodynamischen Potentiales. Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden. 1933. Suppl. No. 75b. S. 13.
38. Rutgers A.J. Note on supraconductivity. Physica. 1934. 1(10-11): 1055-1058.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-8914(34)80300-X
39. Rutgers A.J. Bemerkung zur Anwendung der Thermodynamik auf die Supraleitung. Ibid. 1936. 3(9): 999-1005.
https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-8914(36)80325-5
40. Gorter C.J., Casimir H.B.G. On superconductivity. Ibid. 1934. 1(4): 306-320.
41. Schubnikow L.W., Chotkewitsch W.I. Spezifische Wärme von supraleitenden Legierungen. Phys. Z. Sowiet. 1934. V. 6, H. 3-4. P. 605-607.
42. Mendelssohn K., Moore J.R. Specific heat of a superconducting alloy. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1935. V. 151A, no 873. P. 334-341.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1935.0152
43. Ruhemann M. and B. Low Temperature Physics. Cambridge, University Press, 1937. P. 274-275; 287-288; 313.
44. Shoenberg D. Superconductivity. Cambridge, University Press. 1938. P. 79-86.
45. Jackson L.C. Superconductivity. Repts. Progr. Phys. 1940. V. 6. P. 338.
46. Burton E.F., Smith H.G., Wilhelm J.O. Phenomena at the temperature of liquid helium. N.Y., Reinhold Publ. Corp. 1940. P. 307-310, 319.
47. Mendelssohn K. Superconductivity. Repts. Progr. Phys. 1946. V. 10. P. 362-363.
48. Shoenberg D. Superconductivity (2nd ed.). Cambridge, University Press. 1952. P. 41-44.
49. Esakov V.D., Rubinin P.E. Kapica, Kreml' i nauka. T. 1. Moskva: Nauka, 2003 [in Russian].
50. Livingston J.D. Magnetic properties of superconducting lead — base alloys. Phys.Rev. 1963. 129(5): 1943-1949.
https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.129.1943
51. Ginzburg V.L., Landau L.D. K teorii sverhprovodimosti. ZhJeTF. 1950. 20(12): 1064-1082 [in Russian].
52. Ginzburg V.L. On Superconductivity and Superfluidity (What I have and have not managed to do), As well as on the «Physical Minimum» at the beginning of the 21st century. In: T. Frängsnyr (Ed.). Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 2003 (Nobel Foundation, Stockholm). 2004. P. 103.
53. Chandrasekhar B.S. Early experiments and phenomenological theory. In: Superconductivity (ed.R.D.Parks). Marcel Dekker Inc, N.Y. 1969. V.1. P. 43.
54. Abrikosov A.A. O magnitnyh svojstvah sverhprovodnikov vtoroj gruppy. ZhJeTF. 1957. 32(6): 1442-1452 [in Russian].
55. Ginzburg V.L. On the theory of superconductivity. Nuovo Cimento. 1955. 2(6): 1234-1250.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02731579
56. Abrikosov A.A. Type II superconductors and the vortex lattice. In:T.Frängsnyr (Ed.). Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes. 2003. Stockholm, Nobel Foundation. 2004. P. 65.
57. Gorter C.J. Superconductivity until 1940 in Leiden and as seen from there. Revs.Mod.Phys. 1964. 36(1). Pt. 1. P. 6.
58. Gorter C.J. Some remarks on superconductivity of the second kind. Ibid. P. 27.
59. Mendelssohn K. Prewar work on superconductivity as seen from Oxford. Ibid. P. 10.
60. Bardeen J., Schmitt R.W. International conference on the science of superconductivity. Ibid. P. 2.
61. Mendelssohn K. The Quest for Absolute Zero. The Meaning of Low Temperature Physics. McGraw-Hill Book Company, N.Y. 1966. P. 209.
62. Anderson P.W. Superconductivity in past and future. In: Superconductivity (ed. R.D. Parks), N.Y., Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1969. V. 2. P. 1347.
63. De Gennes P.G. Superconductivity of metals and alloys. W.A. Benjamin, Inc. N.Y., Amsterdam. 1966. Chapter 3.
64. Ginzburg V.L. Neskol'ko zamechanij ob izuchenii sverhprovodimosti. UFN. 2005. 175(2): 188 [in Russian].
65. Rossi L. Superconductivity: its role, its success and its setbacks in the Large Hadron Collider of CERN. Supercond. Sci. and Technol. 2010. 23(3): 1-18.
https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/23/3/034001
66. Salpietro E. Status of the ITER magnets. Ibid. 2006. 19(3): 84-89.
https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-2048/19/3/011
67. Larbalestier D. Wires and Tapes. In: 100 Years of Superconductivity (ed. P.H. Kes, H. Rogalla), L., Taylor & Francis, 2011 (in press) chapter XI.
68. Shepelev A.G. The discovery of type II superconductors (Shubnikov Phase) in: Superconductor (ed. A.M. Luiz). Rijeka, Sciyo. 2010. P. 17-46: http://www.intechopen.com/books/show/title/superconductor
https://doi.org/10.5772/10117