Creation of Industrial Equipment for High Frequency Mechanical Impact on Railway Car Building Products and Methods for Assessing the Quality of Treatment

1Prokopenko, GI
1Mordyuk, BM
2Krasovsky, TA
3Knish, VV
3Solovey, SO
1Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the NAS of Ukraine
2Kyiv Academic University of the NAS and MES of Ukraine
3Paton Institute of Electric Welding of the NAS of Ukraine
Nauka innov. 2019, 15(2):27-40
https://doi.org/10.15407/scin15.02.027
Section: Research and Engineering Innovative Projects of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: 
Introduction. The technology of high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) has proved itself to be a reliable, efficient, and convenient method for increasing the fatigue strength of welded structures, which is one of the most priority tasks of the machine-building industry.
Problem Statement. The experience of operating the HFMI equipment and technology has shown that there are many problems associated with the determination of the process quality and completeness. The creation of ultrasonic equipment for HFMI with electromechanical piezo-ceramic transducers was initiated at the Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the NAS of Ukraine. Over the years, this equipment has been used both for scholarly research and for processing of various products and structures. However, neither the HFMI equipment and nor HFMI technology has been commercialized so far.
Purpose. To create a new ultrasound equipment having a high reliability and a significant operation resource suitable for the use in the operating conditions and to develop tools for evaluating the HFMI process quality regarding welded joints of certain parts and railway-car building products.
Materials and Methods. Low-alloy structural steels St3сp and 09G2S. Hardness / microhardness measurements and optical microscopy.
Results. A mock-up of ultrasonic equipment has been made. It has has passed comprehensive industrial tests at Kriukov Railway Car Building Works, Public Joint-Stock Company (“KRCBW” PJSC), Kremenchuk, Ukraine. Some deficiencies of the equipment identified during the tests have been eliminated in a new model of the equipment. A method for determining the HFMI process productivity and the duration of treatment of welded joints has been suggested. It is based on simple microhardness measurements. The quality and completeness of the treatment has been additionally checked by visual inspection of a groove formed by impact elements.
Conclusions. A new ultrasound equipment has been manufactured, and technological recommendations on choosing treatment regimes for railway carriage trolleys and other products of KRCBW PJSC have been proposed.
Keywords: high-frequency mechanical impact, metal fatigue, microhardness, quality and duration of treatment, ultrasonic equipment, welded joints
References: 
1. Lobanov, L. M., Kiryan, V. I., Knysh, V. V., Prokopenko, G. I. (2006). Increased fatigue resistance of welded joints of metal structures by high-frequency mechanical forging. Automatic welding, 9, 3–11 [in Russian].
2. Knysh, V. V., Solovey, S. A., Bogaychuk, I. L. (2011). Optimization of the hardening process of 09G2S steel welded joints by high-frequency mechanical forging. Automatic welding, 5, 26–31 [in Russian].
3. Prokopenko, G. I., Knysh, V. V., Solovey, S. O. (2011). Extension of residual resource of the welded joints of St3sp and 09G2S steels by high-frequency mechanical forging. Bulletin of the Ternopil National Technical University. Spec. issue, part 2, 35–41 [in Ukrainian].
4. Lefebvre, F., Peyrac, C., Elbel, G., Revilla-Gomez, C., Verdu, C., Buffiere, J. (2017). HFMI: understanding the mechanisms for fatigue life improvement and repair of welded structures. Welding in the Word, 61(4), 789–799.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-017-0455-8
5. Prokopenko, G. I., Nedoseka, A. Ya., Gruzd, A. A., Krasovsky, T. A. (1995). Development and optimization of equipment and process of ultrasonic impact treatment of welded joints in order to reduce residual stresses. Technician Diagnostics and Nondestruction Control, 3, 14–22 [in Russian].
6. Patent of Ukraine N 108188. Prokopenko G. I., Mordyuk B. N., Vysokolyan M. V., Volochai V. V., Popova T. V. Method of ultrasonic impact treatment of welded joints of metalic structures [in Ukrainian].
7. Prokiĉ, M. (2004). Piezoelectric Transducers Modeling and Characterization. Switzerland. 266 p.
8. Kiselev, M. G., Savitsky, S. С. (1989). Investigation of operating modes of a technological acoustic system with a movable tool. Priborostroenie, 11, 41–46 [in Russian].
9. Dyakonov, V. P., Penkov, A. A. (1999). Calculation of the control characteristic of transistor voltage transducers with resonant circuit in the MCAD system. Electrical engineering, 4, 54–59 [in Russian].
10. Patent of Ukraine N 94051. Prokopenko G. I., Krasovsky T. A., Cherepin V. T., Mordyuk B. M. Ultrasonic hand tool for deformation strengthening and relaxation treatment of metals [in Ukrainian].
11. Vagapov, I. K., Ganiyev, M. M., Shinkarev, A. S. (2008). Theoretical and experimental research of dynamics of an ultrasonic vibro-impact system with intermediate pin. Proc. of Higher Educational Schools. Mech. Eng., 5, 3–24 [in Russian].
12. Degtyarev, V. A. (2011). Estimation of influence of modes of high-frequency mechanical welding of welded joints on their resistance to fatigue. Strength of Mater., 2, 61-70 [in Russian].
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11223-011-9281-1
13. Marquis, G., Barsoum, Z. (2013). Fatigue strengthening of steel structures by high-frequency mechanical impact: proposed procedures and quality assurance guidelines. Welding in the World, 57, 803-822.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-013-0075-x
14. Roy, S., Fisher, J. W. (2005). Enhancing fatigue strength by ultrasonic impact treatment. Int. J. Steel Struct., 5, 241–252.
15. Lopez Martinez, L., Haagensen, P. J. Life extension of Class F and Class F2 details using ultrasonic peening. IIW Document XIII-2143-06.