Two-Stage Technology for Palm Oil Fractionation for Production of Cocoa Butter Substitutes

1Radzievska, IG, 1Melnyk, OP, 1Galenko, OO
1National University of Food Technologies
Nauka innov. 2018, 14(1):40-49
Section: Scientific Basis of Innovation Activity
Language: Ukrainian
Introduction. Tropical oils, as the most important source of vegetable fats in the world, can be substitutes for expansive conventional raw materials in manufacturing the food stuffs that meet the global trends and requirements in the food industry. 
Problem Statement is to study the possibility of two-stage fractionation of palm oil by the solvent method. Purpose is to trial the palm oil fractionation technology for obtaining high-quality fractions of a given composition and further production of cocoa butter substitutes on its basis.
Materials and Methods. Refined palm oil and its fractions have been studied by thermographic, chromatographic, and standard titrimetric methods.
Results. The palm oil fractionation technology by using the dry method in two successive stages has been improved. Cryoscopic temperatures of 22.8°C and 8.2°C have been identified at a cooling rate from 0.2 to 0.8°C/min. A palm oil fraction with a melting point of 33-39 °C, which contains 50% of lauric acid and has a similar composition as cocoa butter has been obtained. Using the obtained midfraction, the mix formulas for the production of substitutes, equivalents, and enhancers of cocoa butter have been designed.
Conclusion. The regimes of solvent palm oil fractionation for obtaining a midfraction that meets the requirements of cocoa butter substitutes have been established.
Keywords: cocoa butter substitutes, cooling rate, fractionation, midfraction, palm oil
1. Kuznetsova, L.M. (2014). Tekhnolohiya modyfikovanykh zhyriv solʹventnym fraktsiyuvannyam. PhD (Tekh.). Kharkiv. [in Ukrainian].
2. Gunstone, F.D. (2002). Vegetable Oils in Food Technology. Boca Raton, Florida, USA.  352 p.
3. Kellens, M., Gibon, V., Hendrix, M., De Greyt, W. (2007). Palm oil fractionation. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 109 (4), 336-349.
4. Mamat, H., Nor Aini, I., Said, M., Jamaludin, R. (2005). Physicochemical characteristics of palm oil and sunflower oil blends fractionated at different temperatures. Food Chemistry. V. 91, 731-736.
5. Palm oil. General specifications. ISO 4306:2004. Kyiv, 2004. 18 p. [in Ukrainian].
6. Plant oils. Determination of flavour, colour and transparency GOST 5472:50. 4 p. [in Russian].
7. Palm oil. URL: (Last accessed: 30.11.2017).
8. Kharchova tsinnist. Palmova oliya – dzherelo zdorovya.
URL: (Last accessed: 30.11.2017). 
9. Shumeyko V.M. (2009). Marketynhovyy menedzhment eksportnoho potentsialy oliyno-zhyrovoho kompleksy Ukrayiny. Mekhanizm rehulyuvannya ekonomiky. 2 (4), 177-184 [in Ukrainian].
10. Chong, C., Kamarudin, Z., Lesieur, P., Marangoni, A., Bourgaux, C., Ollivon, M. (2007). Thermal and structural behaviour of crude palm oil: Crystallisation at very slow cooling rate. European Journal of lipid Science and technology. 109 (4), 410-421.
11. Zaliha, O., Chong, C.L., Cheow, C.S., Norizzah, A.R. and Kellens, M.J. (2004). Crystallization properties of palm oil by dry fractionation. Food Chemistry. 86 (2), 245-250.
12. Miskandar, M.S., Che Man, Y.B., Abdul Rahman, R., Nor Aini, I., Yusoff, M.S.A. (2004). Palm Oil Crystallization: Effects of cooling time and oil content. Journal of Food Lipids. 11 (3), 190-207.
13. Tymchenko, V.K. (2005). Fraktsionuvannya palmovoyi oliyi z vykorystannyam PAR. Oliyno-zhyrovyy kompleks. 1, 21-23 [in Ukrainian].
14. Sadovnychyy H. (2003). Palmovoe maslo. Osobennosty eho prymenenyya v maslozhyrovoy promyshlennosty Ukrayny. Oliyno-zhyrovyy kompleks. 3, 51-54 [in Russian].
15. Pei, S., Abas, F., Lima, H.K., Beh, B.K., Ling, T.C., Tan, C.P. (2014). Compositional and thermal characteristics of palm olein-based diacylglycerol in blends with palm super olein. Food Research International. 55, 62-69.
16. Kalnin, D., Garnaud, G., Amenitsch, H., Ollivon M. (2002). Monitoring fat crystallization in aerated food emulsions by combined DSC and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Food Research International. 35, 927-934.
17. Kuznetsova, L.N., Papchenko, V.Yu., Demydov, Y.N. (2013). Poluchenye nyzkoplavkoy fraktsyy palʹmovoho masla. Visnyk NTU «KhPI». 11 (985), 120-123 [in Russian].
18. Palm stearin. General specifications. ISO 4439: 2005. Kyiv, 2006. 20 p. [in Ukrainian].
19. Palm olein. General specifications. ISO 4438: 2005. Kyiv, 2006. 18 p. [in Ukrainian].
20. Naik, B., Kumar, V. (2014). Cocoa Butter and Its Alternatives: A Reveiw. Journal of Bioresource Engineering and Technology. 1, 7-17.
21. Syrokhman, I.V. (2008). Tovaroznavstvo tsukru, medu, kondytersʹkykh vyrobiv. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
22. Undurraga, D., Markovits, A., Erazo, S. (2001). Cocoa butter equivalent through enzymatic interesterification of palm oil midfraction. Process Biochemistry. 36 (10), 933-939.
23. Vegetable fats. Equivalent improvers and cocoa butter substitutes. General specifications. ISO 5005: 2014. Kyiv, 2014. 20 p. [in Ukrainian].
24. Mutia, R. (2015). Synthesis of Cocoa Butter Equivalent from Formulated Hard Palm Oil Mid-Fraction and Canola Oil Blends. Advanced Materials Research. 1113, 453-458.
25. Casimir, C. Akoh, David B. Min. (2008). Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology. Boca Raton, New York, USA. 914 p.
26. Lipp, M., Simoneau, C., Ulberth, F., Anklam, E., Crews, C., Brereton, P., De Greyt, W., Schwack, W., and Wiedmaier, C. (2001). Composition of Genuine Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Butter Equivalents. Journal of food composition and analysis. 14 (4), 399–408.