Formation of Legal Protection of Computer Software by the Rules of Copyright and Patent Law

1Kirin, RS
2Khomenko, VL
1Institute of Economic and Legal Research of the NAS of Ukraine
2Dnipro University of Technology
Nauka innov. 2019, 15(6):51-61
Section: Legal Protection of Intellectual Property
Language: Ukrainian
Introduction. Computer programs (CP) are one of the newest objects of intellectual property. Neither the norms of copyright or patent law, nor attempts to develop separate legislation have enabled creating a legal mechanism that would not cause significant complaints from stakeholders.
Problem Statement. An analysis of the historical factors that led to the choice of different approaches to the legal protection of computer programs enables to better understand the system in each country, to choose the most appropriate ways to acquire the rights and protection of these objects of intellectual property, to defend their property and non-property rights, and to look for new, more reasonable and efficient ways of solving problems in this field.
Purpose. To study the world history of the formation and development of legal protection of computer software by the rules of copyright and patent law.
Materials and Methods. Critical review of literary sources on intellectual property and computer science, comparative analysis of international and national legislation of various countries, study of judicial practice that has had the greatest impact on the practical solution to the problem of protecting computer programs.
Results. The main stages in the history of the development and formation of ways of legal protection of computer programs have been identified and characterized. Intellectual property and computer sciences materials, international and national legislation of different countries, jurisprudence, the most important historical events and outstanding inventions in this field have been analyzed. The dominant position of the computer program copyright protection has been established not always to correspond with the rights and interests of their authors who increasingly support the introduction of alternative, patent and legal protection of computer programs by special legislation rather than by the precedent law.
Conclusions. It has been proposed to introduce a hybrid copyright-patent way of CP legal protection, which would combine the advantages of both methods, as a compromise solution to the problem of competition between the CP legal protection by means of the copyright and patent law.
Keywords: copyright, legal protection of computer programs, patent law
1. McCartney, S. (1999). ENIAC – The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World's First Computer. New York: Walker.
2. The London journal of arts and sciences (and repertory of patent inventions). June 1, 1866: 334.
3. Parker, M. (2014). Things to Make and Do in the Fourth Dimension. London: Penguin books. 
4. Fuegi, J., Francis, J. (2003). «Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'». IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 25(4), 16, 19, 25. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
5. Mrs. Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace. IT History Society.
(Last accessed: 30.08.2019). 
6. Rosen, K. H. (1991). Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications. McGraw-Hill, Inc. 
7. Hellige, H. D. (Ed.). (2004) Geschichten der Informatik. Visionen, Paradigmen, Leitmotive. Berlin, Springer.
8. Copeland, J. (2006). Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
9. U.S. Patent 3120606. Eckert J. P. Jr., Mauchly J. W. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.
10. Enticknap, N. (1998). Computing's Golden Jubilee. The Computer Conservation Society, 20, 6–8.
11. Tanenbaum, A. S. (1990). Structured Computer Organization. Prentice Hall. 
12. Belov, V. V., Vitaliev, G. V., Denisov, G. M. (1997). Intellektualnaya sobstvennost. Zakonodatelstvo i praktika primeneniya. Prakticheskoe posobie. Moscow: Gardarika [in Russian].
13. Application of Bernhart, 417 F.2d 1395, 163 U.S.P.Q. (BNA) 611 (C.C.P.A. 1969).
14. Beresford, K. (2000). Patenting Software under the European Patent Convention. London: Sweet & Maxwell. 
15. Kretschmer, M. (2003). Software as Text and Machine: The Legal Capture of Digital Innovation. Journal of Information Law & Technology (JILT), 1, 23.
16. Martin Goetz.
URL: (Last accessed: 31.08.2019).
17. Smith, G. Unsung innovators: Marty Goetz, holder of first software patent.
(Last accessed: 31.08.2019).
18. Zyibtsev, E., Troyan, E. K istokam patentovaniya v oblasti kompyuternoy tehniki.
(Last accessed: 31.08.2019) [in Russian].
19. Gottschalk v. Benson, 409 U.S. 63, 93 S. Ct. 253, 34 L. Ed. 2d 273 (1972).
20. Petrenko, S. A. (2011). Ohorona komp’yuternoyi programi yak ob’ekta intelektualnoyi vlasnosti: teoriya i praktika. Kyiv: NAPN Ukrayini, N.-d. in-t intelekt. vlasnosti [in Ukrainian].
21. Graham, S. J. H., Mowery, D. C. (2003). Intellectual property protection in the US. Software industry. Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 217–258.
22. Diamond v. Diehr, 450 U.S. 175 (1981).
23. Diamond v. Bradley, 450 U.S. 381 (1981).
24. State Street Bank v. Signature Financial Group, 149 F.3d 1368 (CAFC, 1998).
25. In re Bilski, 545 F.3d 943 (Fed. Cir. 2008).
26. Bilski v. Kappos, 561 U.S. 593 (2010).
27. Mayo v. Prometheus, 566 U.S. 66 (2012).
28. Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Int'l, 573 U.S. (2014).
29. Ugoda pro torgovelni aspekti prav intelektualnoyi vlasnosti.
URL: (Last accessed: 31.08.2019) [in Ukrainian].
30. Kirin, R. S., Khomenko, V. L., Korostashova, I. M. (2012). Intelektualna vlasnist. Dnepropetrovsk: Natsionalniy girnichiy universitet [in Ukrainian].